FURTHER READING



Glossary

Aspa: pole, also called rod, protruding from the yoke where the rope is attached to play the bell. In the “slancio” type chimes, it is placed inside a triangular structure called “cicogna” or “bilancia”. In concert systems (English, Ambrosian, Veronese) and with the recent controllers in use, it is often replaced by a wheel.

Striker or clapper (from the Latin "Bataculum") : element made of iron suspended inside the bell which strikes the sides of the bell making it vibrate and ring. Formerly it was secured to the structure by means of an ox’s nerve or a strip of leather. Nowadays steel cables and reinforcements are used.

Head: (usually 3) which are bolted above the counterweight in the Ambrosian systems and its derivations.

Yoke: ancient wooden structure, nowadays realised in cast iron or steel, to which the bell is attached to.

Counterweight or counterweight box: upper part of the strain of the Ambrosian type bells, filled with iron plates, scales to slow down the rotation of the bell.

Isolator: piece of wood which plays a very important role in all the bells subject to movement. It is in fact placed between the handles of the bell and the strain; it absorbs the vibrations which reach the upper end of the bell, which would otherwise reach the higher strain.

Handles: also called loops. Forming the upper crown, bronze pieces situated above the bell used to connect the bell to the yoke (for a moving bell) or to the beam (for a fixed bell) by means of iron bars and bolts.

Mezzolo: wooden bar that covers the nuts and bolts of the handles. Used in the Bolognese system to prevent the rope from tangling.

Pins: 2 cylinders which protrude from either side of the yoke situated in ball bearings to allow movement.

Wheel: connected either to the right or left of the yoke and the bell. The rope runs in the groove of the wheel if the bell is rung manually; or, when automated systems are used, a lubricated chain will run. Bells that have no wheel will have a rod instead.

Swinging Bell: this expression is used to indicate when the bell swings around an almost centrally positioned axis and produces sound. This should not to be confused with the momentum type sounds, which have the axis of rotation respectively more distant from centre

"Upright bell position-Glass" or "concert bells": This expression is used to indicate the position of the bell completely reversed; this position is reached by the bell performing a rotation of 180 ° as a result of some swinging cycles. It is evident that the bells concert are typical of systems of bell sounds in movement. Once the bell has reached the “glass” upright position, depending on the different customs and ways of playing which vary from place to place, the bell is made to rotate to play one or more strokes to then return to the same position. Some sounds, such as the Veronese sound, the bell concert is part of a preordained sequence of chimes along with other bells; in others the bell concert can conclude musical pieces in a solemn manner, or be used for funerals.

"Slancio" Momentum bell: see the next section "Classification of the bells."

Offset Bell: see the following section "Classification of the bells."

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